Instructions from my Professor:
Part of the goal of this assignment is to have students familiarize themselves with APA (American Psychological Association) format in writing papers. This is a scientific format versus the MLA (or humanities-style format) with which you may be more familiar. You will be required to use APA format for literature citations within the text for your paper and literature cited at the end of the paper. You will also be required to include Abstract, Introduction, and Conclusions sections in your paper. The way you organize the body of the paper (between the Introduction and Conclusions) is up to you. Headings are used in APA style papers so that readers can easily find and read parts of your paper independently. They may only read the abstract to see if they are interested, then they may skip to your conclusions and from there read a section in the body of your paper that is specific to the information they are seeking. Use headings for all sections of the paper except for the title. Before you submit the paper itself you will write an annotate bibliography, instructions for which are included at the end of this document.
Your title should be concise and descriptive. Indexing and abstracting services depend on the accuracy of the title, extracting from it keywords useful in cross-referencing and computer searching. An improperly titled paper may never reach the audience for which it was intended, so be specific. If the paper is on a particular discipline in Environmental Studies, name it in the title. If the research is a specific individual, then name the individual in the title.
An abstract should allow the reader to identify the basic content of your paper quickly and accurately, to determine its relevance to their interests and decide whether to read the document in its entirety. The abstract is a summary of your paper with the emphasis on your major findings. Be very succinct – the abstract should be a single paragraph for a 4-8 page paper. It should stand on its own; therefore, do not refer to any other part of the report. As a summary of work done, it should be written last and is written in past tense. Omit all references to the literature (no literature citations in an abstract!!) and omit abbreviations and acronyms even though they may be defined in main body of the paper. The abstract should also serve as somewhat of an advertisement ? you want to entice your audience to read further.
The Introduction should do just that ? introduce your subject, in brief terms. Why are you doing research on this topic (person)? Is there pertinent background information you want to include? Keep the introduction brief, but do indicate the purpose of your paper and what you hope to find.
Body of the Paper
The organization of the body of the paper is up to you. You can arrange this section chronologically, by subject matter, or in some other way. Use headings to organize this section.
Here is where you make interpretations of your findings and reflect. What do you conclude about the subject you researched? Did you find what you thought you would or were there interesting or unexpected aspects of this person?s life, philosophy, contributions, etc. that surprised you? Were you inspired by this person? Are there parts of their life you would like to emulate? You may write in first person in this section, while other sections of the paper should be written in third person.
Citing References (or literature)
Literature citations in the body of your paper should be in parentheses and contain only the author’s last name and the year of the publication; for two authors use both last names and for multiple authors include the last name of the first author and ?et al.? and the date. For example: (McIntyre 1990) (Smith and Shugart 1996) (Lei et al. 1990). If the author’s name is used in the text then just the date in parentheses is sufficient. For example: ?Smith (1982) compared the work of Emerson with Thoreau.? Do not use footnotes when writing in APA format.
In the Literature Cited section of the paper you should list all references used in your paper in alphabetical order by the last name of the first author in a separate section. Use the proper form for citations. If the citation is to a specific page(s) add the page number(s). Use hanging format (shown below) where you do not indent the first line of the citation, but do indent all other lines.
For journal or magazine articles:
Smith, T. H. 1982. Change in species composition with shifting cultivation: the limited role of soil nutrients. Ecological Monographs 3(6):371-394.
Enman, C.H. and L.R. Conway. 2005. The Grizzly Man: A venture into the wild. Backpacker Magazine. 35: 19-20.
For a book:
Neidhardt, F.C, J.L. Ingraham and. M. Schaechter. 1990. Physiology of the Bacterial Cell. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.
For a newspaper article:
McKay, D. 2000. Arsenic: how much is safe? Albuquerque Journal of Pollution Control. July 30, 2000, p. A1.
For a web site:
National Research Council. 1999. Arsenic in drinking water. Subcommittee on Arsenic in Drinking Water. Retrieved February 1 2005 from http://www4.nationalacademies.org/news.nsf/isbn .
For a personal communication (an interview)
Sanchez, R. 1993. City of Socorro, Water Utilities Division, Socorro, NM. February 1, 2005. Personal communication.
I (student/customer) already wrote the annotated bibliography for this paper so these are the sources you have to use:
Flippen, J.B. 2006. ?Conservative Conservationist: Russell E. Train and the Emergence
of American Environmentalism,? Louisiana State University Press
This book is a biography of Russell E. Train who was a Republican environmental conservationist. This book goes into detail of Train?s early years as a child, growing up within his family, and the beginning of his judicial career. It explains how and why Train left his successful judicial career to create the African Wildlife Leadership Foundation. As pollution and uncontrolled growth became evident, Train adopted a more ecological approach to nature and became a leader of the emerging environmental movement of the 1960?s. He soon led the Conservation Foundation. President Richard Nixon appointed Train as the first chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality just as the U.S. celebrated its first Earth Day. There Train helped create the most important environmental legislation in U.S. history. After three years, Train became administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, enforcing regulation during the Energy Crisis and much of the troubled 1970?s.
World Wildlife Fund, 2012. ?Who We Are: Russell E. Train?
This is an article written by the World Wildlife Fund describing Russell E. Train?s role in many governmental and non-profit organizations. Russell E. Train served as Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under Presidents Nixon and Ford. Train became Chairman of the Board of Directors of World Wildlife Fund and of the Conservation Foundation in 1985 and stayed in that position while the two organizations merged and formally created WWF in 1990. Train was elected WWF Chairman Emeritus and served as Chairman of the WWF National Council from 1994 to 2001. Under his guidance, World Wildlife Fund-U.S. grew from a small primarily grant making organization into a global conservation force with over 1 million members. To honor Train the WWF established an endowment called, ?Russell E. Train Education for Nature Fund,? that would provide financial support and educational training to the next generation of conservation leaders.
EPA History Office, March 2001. ?Russell E. Train: Biography?
Russell Errol Train served as the second United States Environmental Protection Agency Administrator from September 1973 to January 1977. Russell supported EPA?s increase of interest in international affairs and the approval of the catalytic converter to achieve the Clean Air Act automobile emission reductions. He also helped the implementation of the Toxic Substances Control Act and the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System. Train continually encouraged EPA?s work to balance the demands of the energy crisis with environmental issues.
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