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a) Heritage Assessment b) In the textbook, Spector (2009) Cultural diversity in health and illness, answer the questions in the Heritage Assessment Tool. NOTE: The 2004 edition, Culture Care Guide to Heritage Assessment and Health Traditions, also contains the Heritage Assessment Tool. i) In 750-1000 words, summarize what you learned from the heritage assessment. Include the following: (1) Identify common health traditions based on your cultural heritage. (2) Interview 3 families from different cultures. One family can be your own. Compare the differences in health traditions between these cultures. Address: (a) Health maintenance (b) Health protection (c) Health restoration (3) Evaluate how deeply you feel your family subscribes to these traditions and practices. (4) Explain what your professional heritage is (nursing) and how deeply do you identify with it. ii) Use standard essay format in APA style, including an introduction, conclusion, and title page. An abstract is not required. Cite in-text and in the References section. Heritage assessment grading rubric is attached.Please follow the rubric attached. 1) Textbooks: a) Edelman et al., chaps. 2 and 11 b) Spector, Cultural Diversity in Health and Illness, chaps. 1, 3, and 4 Culture and Cultural Competency in Health Promotion Introduction Health is influenced by culture and beliefs. Fejos as cited by Spector (2004) defines culture “as the sum total of socially inherited characteristics of a human group that comprises everything which one generation can tell, convey, or hand down to the next; in other words, the non-physically inherited traits we possess” (p. 9). A more contemporary way of defining culture is a metacommunication system, which involves drawing meaning from not only spoken words, but from everything in the environment. Benefits of Cultural Competency and Awareness Being culturally competent and aware is more than just asking where someone was born. To be effective, health care practitioners need to stay abreast of the diversity of patients’ cultures (Boyle, 2000). Cultural awareness embraces the concept of transcultural health care developed by Leininger (1984). This practice requires that health care professionals not only be aware of the diverse cultural beliefs and value systems of patient groups, but also attuned to their own beliefs and value systems. Cross, Bazron, Dennis, and Isaacs (1989) cited five essential elements that contribute to the ability to become culturally competent: (a) valuing diversity, (b) having the capacity for cultural assessment, (c) being conscious of the dynamics inherent when cultures interact, (d) having institutionalized cultural knowledge, and (e) having developed adaptations of service delivery that reflect an understanding of cultural diversity. Cultural Consideration in Health Teaching A challenge to the practice of nursing is to apply health education to individuals and families from diverse cultural backgrounds. Cultural beliefs and values influence health decisions and must be taken into consideration. Therefore, cultural diversity in health education is as important as any other sector of health maintenance. Cultural Care Cultural care is a comprehensive model that includes the assessment of a client’s cultural needs, beliefs, and health care practices. It uses a three-fold approach from the health care provider that includes being culturally competent, culturally appropriate, and culturally sensitive. Appropriate cultural awareness simply means applying the underlying background knowledge that must be possessed to deliver the best possible health care. Whereas, being culturally competent provides health care based on an understanding of the total context of the client’s complex situation through knowledge, attitudes, and skills (KAS). Cultural care alters the perspectives of health care delivery as it enables the provider to understand, from a cultural perspective, the manifestations of the client’s heritage and life trajectory. Spector (2004) espoused, “The provider must serve as a bridge in the health care settings between the patient and the people who are from different cultural backgrounds” (p. 8). CONCLUSION: Understanding cultural influences on health care practices is essential to providing health promotion education. Using the Culture Care model will assist nurses in providing information that will enable clients from different cultures to make positive health behavior changes. In addition, education concerning nutrition is needed to enhance health across the cultural continuum. Armed with this knowledge, the nurse is able to make a comprehensive, culturally competent health plan to the client. REFERENCES: Beaudry, M., Hamelin, A., & Delisle, H. (2004). Public nutrition: An emerging paradigm. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 95(5), 375-378. Boyle, P. (2000). Multicultural healthcare. The World of Irish Nursing, 8(7), 14-15. Cross, T., Bazron, B., Dennis, K., & Isaacs, M. (1989). Toward a culturally competent system of care: Volume 1 [Electronic version]. Washington, DC: Georgetown University. Retrieved November 30, 2007, from http://www.nasponline.org/culturalcompetence/02_DEFINING_CULTURAL_52F.doc Drewnowski, A., & Evans, W. (2001, October). Nutrition, physical activity, and quality of life in older adults: Summary. The Journals of Gerontology: Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56A, 89-94. Leininger, M. (1984). Transcultural nursing: An essential knowledge and practice field for today. Canadian Nurse, 80(11), 41-45. Spector, R. E. (2004). Cultural diversity in health and illness (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Health. World Health Organization. (2002). The world health report 2007: Chapter 7—Preventing risks and taking action. Retrieved November 30, 3007, from http://www.who.int/whr/2002/chapter7/en/

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