This is what I wrote so far. Please make it better and add more pages to it; I only wrote 6 pages.David Lim Professor Kruze U.S. Japan Relations Rough Draft How did America and Japan’s military relationship form and prospered since WWII? Japan is one of the most influential countries in the global market today. This country has the third largest economy and is known for its technological advancement. Since 1852 up to today, Japan is one of America’s major trading partners and closest allies. Japanese companies such as Toyota, Honda, Sony, Panasonic and many more have exported their products across the United States; in return, America has exported manufactured goods such as transportation and machinery equipment, and raw materials such as meat and fish. In addition to their trade, Japan and America have formed a close alliance by promoting peace and democracy across Asia; both countries have mutual threats, China, and North Korea, economically and politically. Nevertheless, America and Japan did not always have a solid relationship from the start. Just like any type of relationship, countries have their guard up against new foreign countries; they also dispute their disagreements through diplomacy or militarily. Despite Japan and America’s attempt at diplomacy to form a peaceful relationship before 1939, they had to settle their disputes militarily, known as World War II, due to economic and political motives. As a result, America and Japan formed a strong military relationship through three of the following reasons; America helped Japan recovered and rebuild its economy and military; Japan and U.S. share military equipment and exchange new innovative technological advances with each other to gain economic profit and military strength; finally, they both work together in balancing military power in North East Asia. After World War II, Japan was obliterated; its buildings, food, power, and basic necessities virtually did not exist due to the aftermath of the war, especially Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Japan required economic aid and military support from America because it needed to rebuild its country and restart its economy. The American military supported Japan by providing security from potential threats since Japan virtually did not have a military. As Japan’s economy grew and became stronger, it was becoming less financially dependent on the United States. However, it still depended on the United States for military support. In 1951, the United States and Japan signed the San Francisco Peace Treaty, which allows America to use Japan’s land, air, and naval forces. America also could use Japanese facilities and land to build military installation. Nine years later, this treaty was modified and renamed into the 1960 Status of Forces Agreement to make the original peace treaty more “bilateral”. However, despite its attempt to please both parties, the Japanese government had no influence and control over American military presence and its troops. In other words, the 1960 Status Forces Agreement is essentially a legal document that allows America to be in Japan for as long it desires and states that the United States is responsible for military expenditures such as its own equipment and weapons; it also states that Japan must provide the utilities for military installation, cover the salary of Japanese workers that work on U.S. military installation, and pay the expenses for establishment and relocation of bases. Since 1978, Japan has been increasingly covering the cost to host American military forces. In the year 2001, Japan contributed more than six billion dollars in host nation support. In the year 2000 alone, Japan contributed 15 billion dollars. America and Japan both agreed they will assist each other if attacked on Japanese territory. Japanese forces can not defend other territories because it is not allowed to conduct offensive operations due its constitution and agreement, Pacifist Provision Article 9, with the United States. Due to the military restriction imposed by the Japanese constitution and agreement with America, Japanese military forces will never suffice without the support of the United States. Just as U.S. Japan military relations improved, both countries are known to have one of the best militaries in the world. Japan currently produces 90% of its own aircraft, 87% of its ammunition, and 83% of its firearms; it is required to purchase rest of its military weapons only through the United States. Despite Japanese military forces is only capable of defensive missions, it is known to be an innovator in some of the best military technology in the international community. Mitsubishi, a Keiretsu, a company made out of several companies, is known for its electronic appliances, banking services, motor industries, and many more. Surprisingly, Mitsubishi is also known to create military weapons. Mitsubishi developed an air to air missile similar to the American Sidewinder using parts originally developed for civilian application. 23% of T-74 tanks, the main battle tank to replace Tank Type 61 that was developed during WWII, are made out of electronics meant for civilian appliances. Mitsubishi has also created radiation sensors, electric magnetic and acoustic fields using computer and television parts. Kawasaki, a company similar to Mitsubishi, has created helicopters for Sweden, Burma, and Saudi Arabia for anti-submarine and related military missions. Sanyo, known for innovating civilian electronic appliances, built video cameras for U.S. smart bombs as part of their guidance system. Kyocera, a company known for civilian electronic appliances, exported its ceramic coated, highly reliable semiconductors to American company who manufactures the nuclear capable cruise missile Tomahawk, which is currently located at U.S. 7th fleet based at Yokosuka. Many other Japanese companies are developing an infrared version CCD (Charge Coupled Device), an electric light sensor used in cameras and television cameras for military purposes. Hitachi, a Japanese company known for electronic appliances, power plants, information system, and etc, owns 27 research and development facilities for technology. In 1985, Japan’s semiconductor production valued at $7.7 billion dollar. Hitachi developed a military gallium arsenide chip technology for America’s advanced weapons used in the Persian Gulf War. Defense works often occur side by side with civilian projects. Many Japanese companies have at least dual product emphasis. Not only does this produce more revenue, but it also gives them a back up plan if economy changes. For example, during WWII, Yamaha switched from making pianos to aircraft parts and currently only make pianos. Military production costs are less because the Japanese government does not need to spend more money for a specific government defense facility, which would require new personnel, equipment, facilities, and more expenses. The Americans rely on Japanese innovations for its high tech weapons program such as silicon field effect transistors, gallium arsenide chips, and precision optics, which all were used specifically in the Iraq war during George H. Bush presidency. Just as many products designed for Japan’s civilian industry had useful application to the military, many Japanese and American companies research together to innovate new products. Fujitsu has ties with Siemens, Mitsubishi with Motorola, Huges and IBM. Texas Instrument and Intel have significant presence in Japan. In 1985 a group of American military specialists from Department of Defense visited eight Japanese companies. Americans spent 5.6 billion dollars for 38 high technological products. In 1950, the United States averaged 500 million dollars a year for military purchases from. These companies integrated their knowledge and technology together to build to advance military capabilities. Japan and America are responsible for some of the best major weapons systems in the world. Continued… In addition to Japan and America’s military capabilities and technological advances, they work together in balancing the military power in North East Asia. The current balance of power in Northeast Asia is not a balance at all. Each Asian state carries a different mix of defense and offensive arsenals with its limitations. Due to significant arsenal inequalities existing throughout the region, the illusion of a balance between North East Asian countries has been controlled due to the United States establishing a permanent military presence in Korea and Japan. American military capabilities, possession of superior nuclear and conventional weapons, have prevented local Asian countries from dominating each other politically and militarily. Continued… Conclusion Work Cited Emmerson, John K., and Leonard A. Humphreys. Will Japan Rearm?. Washington D.C.: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1973. Emmerson is a senior research fellow at the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace and a retired Foreign Service Officer. Humphreys is an assistant professor of East Asian history at the University of Pacific and a research associate of the Hoover Institution. This book is about Japan’s rearmament with both conventional and nuclear weapons. The authors argue that Japan is expected to have a steady growth for only self defense forces. Japan’s constitutional provisions do not allow it to build forces capable of mounting offensive operations outside of Japan. This book will contribute to my research by providing information on the aftermath of WWII; this is a major component of U.S. and Japan’s military relations today. Goodfriend, Captain Arthur. The Jap Soldier. Washington D.C.: Infantry Journal Inc, 1943. Captain Goodfriend was an officer of the United States Army Reserve. He was about to start a career with New York Times as a writer until Pear Harbor happened. He was called up to Camp Lee, Virginia. He created the Infantry Journal, which is a magazine that represents the Army Infantry. These magazines consist of manuals, articles, and other materials that would aid soldiers with their domain knowledge and training. At the time, it was only sold at PX, a grocery store only for military personnel. The Jap Journal is about how Japanese soldiers trained and prepared for war. It has pictures and written description of how Japanese soldiers formed up, shot guns, trained in martial arts and used modern technological weapons such as bombs, torpedoes, and sound detectors. This book will assist me in my research by allowing me to compare Japanese training to America’s after Japan’s modernization. Hanami, Andrew K. The Military Might of Modern Japan. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, 1995. Hanami is an associate professor of International Relations at San Francisco State University. This book is an attempt to describe Japan’s military and place their significance in perspective with the challenges they face. The information provided in this book will allow me to compare Japan’s military to America’s. It will also allow me to analyze America’s influence in its military and its constitution. Katzenstein, Peter J. Cultural Norms and National Security: Police and Military in Postwar Japan. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996. Katzenstein is a Professor of International Studies at Cornell University. This book is about the relationship between culture and national security, using Japan as an example. Since WWII, Japan has developed a distinctive, comprehensive, and generally nonviolent definition of security that is different from that of the United States. Katzenstein describes the Japanese cultural norms using the police and the Japanese Self-Defense Forces as examples. This book contributes to my research by providing information how America affected Japan after WWII in terms of military structure. Japan used to be a violent country wanting to colonize Asia, spreading its sphere of influence. It is now a country of peace and only desire to expand through the global markets. McIntosh, Malcolm. Japan Re-Armed. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986. McIntosh is a graduate of the University of London and has an MA from the School of Peace Studies at Bradford University. He also has obtained doctorate degree from School of Peace Studies at Bradford University. He has worked for BBC Television as journalist, specializing in defense matters and written articles for magazines and journals around the world. In this book, the author writes about the history of Japan till 1945, comprehensive security, and self-defense and rearmament of Japan after 1945. This book contributes to my research by allowing me to connect how Japan’s army was before WWII and how it is after it. It will also provide support to my argument that America has a major influence in Japan’s military throughout its modernization. Smethurst, Richard J. A Social Basis For Prewar Japanese Militarism. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1974. Smethurst is currently a professor at the University of Pittsburgh. This book argues that through zaigo gunjinkai and seinendan, the Japanese army established a strong support basis of militarism by the 1930s. This book contributes to my research by allowing me to see what the Japanese motives were and how they established a strong supported modernized army. Skinner, Kiron K., Annelise Anderson, and Martin Anderson. Life In Letters. New York: Free Press. This book is a collection of Reagan’s letters with domestic and international allies and foes. This book contains over 1000 of letters that provides a good insight of Reagan’s diplomatic style. In this book, it has letters from Yasuhiro Nakasone, the prime minister of Japan during 1987, to Reagan; Reagan has also sent letters back to Nakasone. These letters provide first hand account which I will take into account of how Japan’s relationship was with America.
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