You should be able to understand and explain the following concepts and questions.
– Definition of Native American; the geographic area and time period we are studying.
– ?Who is Native American??; the different ways of understanding who is counted as a Native American and who isn’t, especially since the introduction of the U.S. Census. How are groups of Native Americans defined? What specific problems have arisen from this issue?
– Anthropologists and Native Americans; what is the history of the relationship between them? What are some of the reasons anthropologists have given for studying Native Americans and how have these efforts worked out?
– What is the relationship between tribes and the U.S. Government? How are tribes established? How many tribes are there? How is their membership determined? What are the benefits of tribal recognition?
– How many Native Americans are there today and how is this determined? Why are there different measures of the number of Native Americans in the United States? What factors do we consider when measuring population change?
– What is the population history of Native Americans in the United States? How many Native Americans were there before European contact, to what low point did the population decline and how many Native Americans are there now? What has the population history of non-Indians in the United States been like in this same time period?
– What were the major causes of Native American population decline? How did each of them impact the Native American population?
– What were some of the major diseases which affected Native Americans? Generally speaking, how were these diseases contracted and spread? What was the attitude of white settlers towards diseases among Native Americans?
– What were the methods and goals of the removal and relocation of Native Americans? Where were Native American groups relocated from and where were they sent to? What were the effects of relocation? Be able to explain the Dawes Act.
– How were traditional Native American ways of life impacted by contact with Europeans? What changes generally occurred in Native American cultures as a result, including changes in subsistence methods?
– The groups covered so far in Oswalt: Netsilik, Chipewyan and Shoshone. You should be able to answer questions about individual groups or compare them to each other.
? Lifestyle: where are they located, what is their housing like, are they sedentary or mobile, how do different groups relate to one another.
? Subsistence: What do they eat, how do they get it, who procures food.
? Material culture: What sort of things do they make, what materials do they make it out of, how do they find and process those materials.
? Kinship: What is their family structure like, how do people relate to one another within families and between families.
– The 1870 and 1890 Ghost Dances: How they originated, who took part in them, what sort of rituals were practiced, what they were a response to, what they were supposed to accomplish and what the end results of the movements associated with them were. Be able to briefly compare the 1870 and 1890 movements.
– The death of Sitting Bull and the events at Wounded Knee; the link between these things and the Ghost Dance.
– Winter Counts: Which groups used them? What do they show and how do they show it? How are they made and how is the information in them passed down? How are anthropologists able to use them to form a timeline of events in Native American cultures? Why are so many of them available for study?
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