Productivity can be analyzed in terms of a breakeven analysis. But there are two general ways to consider Breakeven. The first way is based on a product and its price, costs, and volumes, which is a special case of Cost-Volume-Profit analysis. This method utilizes the profit equation:
Profit = Price * Volume ? Variable Costs * Volume ? Fixed Costs.
Note that Price and Variable Costs are both on a per unit basis. To determine the breakeven point, profit is set equal to zero, and the equation is solved for Volume.
BE = (Fixed Costs) / (Price ? Variable Costs)
The second method of doing breakeven analysis is to compare alternatives that have Fixed Costs and Variable costs and determine the volume at which these total costs for each is equal to zero.
Fixed Costs[a] + Variable Costs[a] * Volume = Fixed Costs[b] + Variable Costs[b] * Volume
Note that Variable Costs are on a per unit basis. Solving for the BE volume:
BE = (Fixed Costs[a] – Fixed Costs[b]) / (Variable Costs[b] – Variable Costs[a])
Download this PowerPoint that provides more details and examples. [BreakevenPPT]
After reviewing the examples in the PowerPoint, download this Excel file that has the examples along with the exercises for you practice. [BreakevenCalc]. You can use this Excel Breakeven Calculator for the Case 5 problem.
Once you have mastered these examples and exercises you should be ready to analyze the EBBD situation and develop a solution.
Module 5 – Case
From: Danny Wilco
Subject: loading dock area decision
As I indicated, I have the information you need to analyze the loading dock decision. We have obtained quotes from different companies for the two possibilities. The information from these quotes is summarized in this Word doc [QuotesSummaryInfo]. You will find the investment costs for each option and an estimate of the service (unloading) times for each one.
The first option is for an automated conveyor system that can be extended into the back of a delivery truck. The products are place directly on the conveyor and moved into the warehouse. This will be a single server situation, but should considerably speed up the process. However, note that there are operating and maintenance costs for this piece of equipment.
The second option is to make construction changes to the dock and expand it so that there is room for two unloading stations. We expect that we will continue to use the current unloading process, but this will provide the two-server option.
Analyze this data and determine which option is the best for EBBD. Consider two scenarios, one with no increase in deliveries (flat sales) from our vendors, and the other with a 3% annual growth, which will increase the number of possible daily vendor deliveries. As a reminder, we still consider the current average daily vendor deliveries to be at 28 per day.
We are looking for a clear and concise report that provides your conclusions and recommendations with a good explanation.
Let me know if you have any questions.
Use what you have learned from the Background section. Develop the costs equations for each option and determine the breakeven point for the options. Use the current delivery situation and the forecast to determine which options are best. Write a clear report that provides what Wilco is looking for. Include explanation of your calculations.
TIP: The use of Breakeven Analysis is straightforward. What is tricky in this problem is determining the Fixed Costs and Variable Costs. For the variable costs, you need to determine the unloading time for each alternative and apply the labor cost/hr. And make sure you include all of the variable costs for each alternative. The fixed costs should include all annual fixed costs. Remember that you are looking at the time period of a year so that you can determine the annual breakeven quantity.
Expectations of the written report
The report should thoroughly address these aspects in depth and breadth:
Problem situation: clearly elucidate the problem situation at EBBD
Assumptions: what are the assumptions that need to be made and your critical evaluation
Solution: discuss how you developed the Solver solution. Keep in mind that your audience is not too technical and do not need a lot of detail on this.
Make sure you attach the Excel file.
You should refer to the Excel file when necessary.
Recommendations: what do you propose for EBBD in terms of using this method in the future and for the other product lines?
Justification & Explanation: clear reasoning as to why the recommendations were made
Writing style & Organization: well-formed sentences and paragraphs, well organized with flow of reason, and good use of language that pertain to concepts and terminology
Use of references & citations: References are NOT REQUIRED. If you do use any, be sure to include appropriate use of citations in the paper and reference list.
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