Write Reliability and Validity paper describing observation and measurement as they relate to human services research. Refer to Ch. 4, 5 and 6 of Beginning Behavioral Research Address each of the following points in your paper: o Define and describe the types of reliability. Please address each type of reliability listed in your Rosnow book in Chapter 6, Table 6.1 (page 125). Provide examples of these types of reliability as they apply to human services research or to human services management research. o Define and describe the types of validity. Please address each type of validity listed in your Rosnow book in Chapter 6, Table 6.1 (page 125). Provide examples of these types of validity as they apply to human services research or to human services management research. o Provide examples of a data collection method and data collection instrument used in human services research. Tell why it is important to ensure that these data collection methods and instruments are both reliable and valid. o Provide examples of a different data collection method and a data collection instrument used in managerial research. Tell why it is important to ensure that these data collection methods and instruments are both reliable and valid. Table 6.1 Types of Reliability and Validity Reliability Alternate-form reliability: The degree of relatedness of different forms of the same test. Internal-consistency reliability: The overall degree of relatedness of all items in a test or all raters in a judgment study (also called reliability of components). Item-to-item reliability: The reliability of any single item on average (analogous to judge-to-judge reliability, which is the reliability of any single judge on average). Test-retest reliability: The degree of temporal stability (relatedness) of a measuring instrument or test, or the characteristic it is designed to evaluate, from one administration to another; also called retest reliability. Validity Construct validity: The degree to which the conceptualization of what is being measured or experimentally manipulated is what is claimed, such as the constructs that are measured by psychological tests or that serve as a link between independent and dependent variables. Content validity: The adequate sampling of the relevant material or content that a test purports to measure. Convergent and discriminant validity: The grounds established for a construct based on the convergence of related tests or behavior (convergent validity) and the distinctiveness of unrelated tests or behavior (discriminant validity). Criterion validity: The degree to which a test or questionnaire is correlated with outcome criteria in the present (its concurrent validity) or the future (its predictive validity). External validity: The generalizability of an inferred causal relationship over different people, settings, manipulations (or treatments), and research outcomes. Face validity: The degree to which a test or other instrument “looks as if” it is measuring something relevant. Internal validity: The soundness of statements about whether one variable is the cause of a particular outcome, especially the ability to rule out plausible rival hypotheses. Statistical-conclusion validity: The accuracy of drawing certain statistical conclusions, such as an estimation of the magnitude of the relationship between an independent and a dependent variable (the effect size) or an estimation of the degree of statistical significance of a particular statistical test. ISBN: 0-
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